A new era has begun when the much-awaited Russian crude oil tanker docked at the Karachi port as Pakistan tries to look for avenues to address its energy needs.
The ship anchored at the Karachi port with 45,142 metric tonnes of crude oil.
Pakistan, the world’s fifth most populous country, faces chronic energy shortages and imports 84 per cent of its petroleum products, overwhelmingly from Gulf Arab allies Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.
With the Russian tanker anchored at the port, Pakistan is expected to extract multiple products by refining it. So what are those?
Russian crude oil can be processed to produce a wide range of products through a refining process known as petroleum refining.
Some of them are mentioned below:
Gasoline is produced through a refining process called distillation. Crude oil is heated, and its components vaporize at different temperatures. The vapors are then condensed, with gasoline being one of the resulting products.
Diesel fuel is also obtained through the distillation process. The heavier components of crude oil, which have higher boiling points, are condensed to produce diesel fuel.
Jet fuel is derived from the distillation process and is similar to diesel fuel. However, it undergoes additional refining steps to meet the strict quality standards required for aviation applications.
Heating oil, also known as fuel oil, is produced during the distillation process. It is used for heating residential and commercial spaces. Like diesel fuel, heating oil can undergo further treatments to improve its quality and reduce impurities.
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG):
LPG is produced through a refining process that involves separating the lighter hydrocarbon gases from the crude oil. These gases, primarily propane, and butane, are liquefied under pressure and stored for various applications, including cooking, heating, and as fuel for vehicles.
Petrochemicals are derived from the refining of crude oil through processes such as cracking, reforming, and polymerisation. These processes break down the hydrocarbon molecules and rearrange them to create valuable chemical compounds used in the production of plastics, synthetic fibers, rubber, pharmaceuticals, and more.
Lubricants are produced by refining the heavier fractions of crude oil. This process involves removing impurities and adjusting the viscosity to create oils suitable for lubrication purposes.
Asphalt is produced from the heaviest components of crude oil. During the refining process, these components are separated and further processed to create asphalt, which is commonly used for road construction and maintenance.
Bitumen, a thick and sticky form of petroleum, is obtained by further processing the heavier fractions of crude oil. It is used primarily in the construction industry for waterproofing, road surfacing, and roofing materials.